Advance Health Package : Understanding the Test Results
28-09-2021 | Posted By: Admin | 137 View(s)
Advance Health Package is very helpful in detecting various diseases at an early stage. In Today’s World when Life has become so fast-paced and full of Tension Filled Deadlines that it tends to cut down on the time which we should otherwise be spending on taking proper care of our Health and Body. It becomes all the more important for men and women to get themselves checked for the risk of developing several diseases. Advance Health Package Package helps in avoiding or slowing down the disease progression so as to offer you a better life. It has 101 Tests to cover all major profiles which are essential for the normal and healthy functioning of the body. Here is a description of the tests which are included in this package along with the significance of the tests which will help you in easy analysis of the reports to make an informed decision.
There are 4 main blood groups (types of blood) – A, B, AB and O. The blood group is determined by the genes you inherit from your parents. Each group can be either RhD positive or RhD negative, which means in total there are 8 blood groups.
What is CBC?
A complete blood count (CBC) provides information about blood cells like
Red Blood Cells (RBC), White Blood Cells (WBC) and platelets. It is generally recommended to get an overview of a patient’s general health status.
Why is CBC done?
•It Helps to assess the overall health condition of a person.
•Help’s detect a variety of disorders including anaemia, infections, diseases of the immune system, and blood cancers
•It can help to monitor existing blood disorders and treatment
1.Red Blood Cells(RBC)
A red blood cell count is a blood test that is done to find out how many red blood cells (RBCs) you have.
Red blood cells contain haemoglobin, which transports oxygen around the body.
Lower values is known as a condition called- anaemia which can be caused because of
•Nutritional deficiency (e.g., iron deficiency, vitamin B12 or folate deficiency)
•Chronic inflammatory disease
•Acute or chronic bleeding
•Chronic kidney disease
•RBC destruction (e.g., hemolytic anemia, etc.)
•Bone marrow disorders or damage
Higher Value indicates-polycythemia which may be caused because of
•Kidney or other tumours that produce excess erythropoietin
•Lung (pulmonary) disease
•Those Living at a High Altitude can also have high values.
•Genetic causes (altered oxygen sensing, abnormality in haemoglobin oxygen release)
•Polycythemia vera—a rare disease
Symptoms of Low RBC Count :
•Shortness of breath
•Dizziness, weakness, or lightheadedness, particularly when you change positions quickly
•Increased heart rate
If you have a high RBC count, you could experience symptoms such as:
•Shortness of breath
•Tenderness in the palms of the hands or soles of the feet
•Itching skin, particularly after a shower or bath
Decreased levels indicate – Anemia
A low hemoglobin level is referred to as anemia or low red blood count. Some of the more common causes of anemia are:
•Nutritional deficiency (iron, vitamin B12, folate),
•Loss of blood (traumatic injury, surgery, bleeding, colon cancer, or stomach ulcer),
•Bone marrow problems (replacement of bone marrow by cancer),
•Suppression by red blood cell synthesis bychemotherapy drugs,
•Kidney failure, and
•Abnormal haemoglobin structure (sickle cell anemia or thalassemia).
Signs and symptoms of Anemia :
•Shortness of breath
•Pale or yellowish skin
•Dizziness or lightheadedness
•Cold hands and feet
What does a high haemoglobin level mean?
Increased levels indicate- Polycythemia
Higher than normal haemoglobin levels is seen in People living at Higher Altitudes and in People who Smoke. Dehydration can also produce a falsely high haemoglobin reading that disappears when the proper fluid balance is restored.
Some other infrequent causes of high haemoglobin levels are:
•Advanced lung disease (for example, emphysema);
•A disorder of the bone marrow known as polycythemia rubra vera, and;
•Another reason for Increased levels can be having performance-enhancing drugs such as anabolic steroids (for example, synthetic testosterone) or erythropoietin. Abuse of the drug erythropoietin (Epogen) by athletes for blood doping purposes (increasing the amount of oxygen available to the body by chemically raising the production of red blood cells).
3. Packed Cell Volume
PCV is the percentage of red blood cells in circulating blood. A decreased PCV generally means red blood cell loss from any variety of reasons like cell destruction, blood loss, and failure of bone marrow production. An increased PCV generally means dehydration or an abnormal increase in red blood cell production.
MCV stands for mean corpuscular volume. There are three main types of corpuscles (blood cells) in your blood–red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. An MCV blood test measures the average size of your red blood cells, also known as erythrocytes
When the MCV value is increased, the RBC is said to be abnormally large, or macrocytic. This is most frequently seen in megaloblastic anaemias (e.g., vitamin B12 or folic acid deficiency). When the MCV value is decreased the RBC is said to be abnormally small, or microcytic.
A low MCV indicates that the red blood cells are small, or microcytic. Possible causes include:8 Iron deficiency.
MCH stands for “mean corpuscular haemoglobin. MCV is a measurement of the average size of your red blood cells.
A low MCH value typically indicates the presence of iron deficiency anaemia.
High MCH value can often be caused by anemia due to a deficiency of B vitamins, particularly B-12 and folate.
The mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) is the average concentration of hemoglobin in your red blood cells. Haemoglobin is the protein molecule that allows red blood cells to carry oxygen to tissues within your body.
You’ll have a high MCHC value if
-There is an increased concentration of hemoglobin inside of your red blood cells. Additionally, conditions where haemoglobin is present outside of red blood cells due to red blood cell destruction or fragility can produce a high MCHC value.
The most common cause of low MCHC is anaemia.
A red cell distribution width (RDW) test is a measurement of the range in the volume and size of your red blood cells (erythrocytes). Red blood cells move oxygen from your lungs to every cell in your body
If your RDW is too high, it could be an indication of
-Nutrient deficiency, such as a deficiency of iron, folate, or vitamin B-12.
-Macrocytic anaemia: A Condition when your body doesn’t produce enough normal red blood cells, and the cells it does produce are larger than normal.
A low RDW means your red blood cells are all about the same size and there are no hematologic disorders.
Blood is made up of several types of cells. These cells float in a liquid called plasma. The types of blood cells are:
•Red blood cells
•White blood cells
•Platelets, or thrombocytes
When the skin gets injured or broken, platelets clump together and form clots to stop the bleeding. When you don’t have enough platelets in your blood, your body can’t form clots.
Decreased levels of Platelet Count is known as a condition called Thrombocytopenia-
Which is generally the result of a medical condition, such as leukemia, or certain medications.
Low levels can lead to Viral infections like dengue fever, bleeding or platelet disorders
Symptoms include easy bruising, and frequent bleeding from the gums, nose, or GI tract. The Platelet count drops when for something is preventing the body to produce platelets
Reasons for Low Platelet Count
•Kidney infection or dysfunction
•Too much alcohol
•An inherited condition
•Certain types of cancer, such as leukemia or lymphoma
•Chemotherapy treatment for cancer
Increased levels is known as a condition called-Thrombocytosis. This can mean -Blood Loss, Chronic Infection or Inflammatory Disease, Removal of the spleen
A white blood cell (WBC) count is a test that measures the number of white blood cells in your body
Decreased levels indicate :
•Bone marrow disorders
A blood test that shows a WBC count of less than 4,000 per microliter could mean your body may not be able to fight infection the way it should. A low number is sometimes called leukopenia.
Increased levels of WBC indicate:
A high white blood cell count may indicate that the immune system is working to destroy an infection. It may also be a sign of physical or emotional stress. People with particular blood cancers may also have high white blood cells counts.
A low MPV generally suggests that most of your platelets are older and that your bone marrow has slowed down production of platelets
A high MPV means that your platelets are larger than average. This is sometimes a sign that you’re producing too many platelets.
11.Differential Blood Count
A differential blood count gives the relative percentage of each type of white blood cell and also helps to reveal abnormal white blood cell populations (eg, blasts, immature granulocytes, and circulating lymphoma cells in the peripheral blood).
Decreased levels (Neutropenia) indicate :
•Drug reactions or Chemotherapy
Increased levels (Neutrophilia) indicate: Acute bacterial infections
Decreased levels (Lymphopenia) indicate:
•Bone marrow damage
Increased levels (Lymphocytosis) indicate:
•Acute viral infections
Decreased levels indicate :
•Bone marrow damage
Increased levels (Monocytosis) indicate:
•Chronic infections like tuberculosis
•Collagen vascular disorders
•Inflammatory bowel diseases
Decreased levels indicate:
•Rare and medically insignificant
Increased levels (Eosinophilia) indicate :
Decreased levels indicate :
Increased levels (Basophilia)indicate:
•Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)
12. ESR is a Blood Test that is helpful in detecting the presence of a disease, infection or condition in the body that may be causing the inflammation. Though it does not directly help in diagnosing a particular condition, it immensely helps physicians know what other tests may be required to detect the underlying problem. It is also used to monitor and examine how well a person is responding to a Treatment for a disease for which they are being treated.
An ESR test can study inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid, systemic lupus erythematosus and arthritis. This test is generally done when a person is suffering from high fever,or some kind of muscle problems or even arthritis.
13 What is a blood smear?
A blood smear is a blood test used to look for abnormalities in blood cells. The three main blood cells that the test focuses on are:
•Red cells, which carry oxygen throughout your body
•White cells, which help your body fight infections and other inflammatory diseases
•Platelets, which are important for blood clotting
The test provides information on the number and shape of these cells, which can help doctors diagnose certain blood disorders or other medical conditions.
The abnormal results depend upon the type of blood cell affected.
The abnormal red blood cells can be seen in conditions like:
•Iron deficiency anemia
•Sickle cell anemia
•Hemolytic uremic syndrome
•Polycythemia rubra vera
The abnormal white blood cells can be seen in conditions like:
•Acute or chronic leukemia
•Hepatitis C virus infection
•Fungal infections such as candidiasis
•Parasitic infections such as pinworm
•Other lymphoproliferative diseases
Blood glucose tests are generally of Three Types:
1.Fasting Glucose Test
Generally, overnight Fasting of 10-12 hours is required till the test is done. Higher levels of Sugar can indicate diabetes however it can also be because of other reasons.
2.Random Glucose Test
It is Non-Fasting Test done in a person with signs and symptoms of Diabetes and hyperglycemia that is equal to greater than 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) indicates diabetes.
3. Post-Prandial Glucose Test
This test is generally done 2 hours after eating or drinking something. This gives an idea of the sugar levels. Higher values can indicate diabetes.
Kidney Function Test
The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs located on either side of the spinal column in the abdomen towards the back. It plays an important role in maintaining your health.
One of the most important functions of the Kidney is to filter waste materials from the blood and expel them from the body inf the form of urine. The kidneys also help to control the levels of water and various essential minerals in the body. They also play an important role in the production of:
•Red blood cells
•Hormones that regulate blood pressure
Kidney function Test is required to identify problems associated with the kidney in case some malfunction is suspected or in cases or conditions like Diabetes or High Blood Pressure which could affect the Kidney
Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)/ Urea:
In the most simple Terms-BUN is the measure of the amount of nitrogen present in blood in the form of urea.
Causes of High BUN Levels:
•Ostruction in the urinary tract due to kidney stones, prostate gland enlargement, etc.
Urea test measures the level of urea in the blood. Urea is a final waste product formed from the breakdown of proteins. Urea is filtered out of the blood by the kidneys to excrete excess nitrogen present in the blood through urine. Excess of urea in blood is called uremia and can be caused by a number of conditions including kidney diseases.
Uric Acid is the waste product that is made when the body breaks down chemicals called Puines.
Purines are substances found in your own cells and also in some foods. Foods with high levels of purines include liver, anchovies, sardines, dried beans, and beer.
Uric Acid Test measures the amount of uric acid in the blood or urine.
Most uric acid dissolves in your blood, then goes to the kidneys. From there, it leaves the body through your urine. If your body makes too much uric acid or doesn’t release enough into your urine, it can make crystals that form in your joints. This condition is known as gout. Gout is a form of arthritis that causes painful inflammation in and around the joints. High uric acid levels can also cause other disorders, including kidney stones and kidney failure.
Uric acid test is also done in case you have symptoms of Kidney Stone.
Symptoms of Kidney Stone:
•Sharp pains in your abdomen, side, or groin
•Blood in your urine
•Frequent urge to urinate
•Pain when urinating
•Cloudy or bad-smelling urine
•Nausea and vomiting
High Uric Acid Levels Indicate:
•Preeclampsia, a condition that can cause dangerously high blood pressure in pregnant women
•A diet that includes too many purine-rich foods
•Side effects from cancer treatment
If your urine test results show high uric levels, it may mean you could have:
•A diet that includes too many purine-rich foods
•Side effects from cancer treatment
Low levels of uric acid in blood are uncommon and not usually cause for concern.
Low levels of uric acid in urine can be a sign of kidney disease, lead poisoning, or heavy alcohol use.
A creatinine test reveals important information about your kidneys.
This test measures the level of Creatinine in blood. Creatinine is a waste product formed from the normal breakdown of muscles in the body. Creatinine is almost completely excreted by the kidneys, so their levels in the blood serve as an indication of kidney function.
A creatinine urine test can measure creatinine in your urine.
Generally, a high serum creatinine level means that your kidneys aren’t working well. However, it does not necessarily mean that there could be a problem as creatinine levels can temporarily increase if you are :
-Have a low blood volume
-Eat a large amount of meat or take certain medications
-The dietary supplement creatine can have the same effect.
BUN/Creatinine Ratio compares the levels of nitrogen as urea in blood to the levels of creatinine in the blood. This ratio serves as a more accurate representation of kidney function. It is also used to check for dehydration since the BUN level increases in dehydration while creatinine levels remain the same. Low BUN to creatinine ratio can be caused due to a low protein diet, liver cirrhosis, rhabdomyolysis (muscle disease), syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) as well as during pregnancy.
Liver Function Test
The liver is located in the right upper portion of the abdominal cavity just beneath the rib cage.
The Liver Performs many important Functions as under:
-Detoxification of blood
-Production of important clotting factors, albumin, and many other important proteins
-Metabolizing (processing) medications and nutrients
-Processing of waste products of hemoglobin and other cells
-Storing of vitamins, fat, cholesterol, and bile
-Production of glucose (gluconeogenesis or glucose synthesis/release during starvation)
Liver Function Test is performed to find out How Well is the Liver Functioning. The various parameters of the LFT include:
A bilirubin test measures the levels of bilirubin in your blood.
•Higher than normal levels of bilirubin may indicate different types of liver or bile duct roblems. Occasionally, higher bilirubin levels may be caused by an increased rate of destruction of red blood cells (hemolysis).
•Lower than normal bilirubin levels are usually not a concern. Elevated levels may indicate liver damage or disease.
•Higher than normal levels of direct bilirubin in your blood may indicate your liver isn’t clearing bilirubin properly.
•Elevated levels of indirect bilirubin may indicate other problems
•Indirect bilirubin is the difference between total and direct bilirubin. Common causes of higher indirect bilirubin include Hemolytic anaemia. This means your body is getting rid of too many red blood cells. Bleeding into the skin caused by the injury.
An SGOT test is used to diagnose liver damage or liver disease. When liver cells are damaged, SGOT leaks into the bloodstream, raising the blood’s level of this enzyme. Low levels of SGOT in the blood are relatively common and not a cause for concern.
high level of SGPT in the blood can be an indication of Liver Damage or problems related to the liver. Certain diseases like cirrhosis and hepatitis raise the blood serum SGPT levels along with Some Medications including statin which are used to lower cholesterol can also raise SGPT Levels.
What Causes High SGPT?
There are many conditions and diseases, which can result in increased SGPT level.
•Acute viral hepatitis A and B
•Gallbladder inflammation (cholecystitis)
Symptoms of High SGPT Level:
The high SGPT level symptoms include –
•Vomiting and nausea
•Shortness of breath
•Excessive bleeding or bruising
An alkaline phosphatase level test (ALP test) measures the amount of alkaline phosphatase enzyme in your bloodstream. Abnormal levels of ALP in your blood can indicate a problem with liver, gallbladder, or bones.
High ALP usually means that either the liver has been damaged or a condition causing increased bone cell activity is present. If other liver tests such as bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), or alanine aminotransferase (ALT) are also high, usually the increased ALP is caused by liver damage or disease
Having lower-than-normal ALP levels in your blood is rare, but it can indicate malnutrition, which could be caused by celiac disease or a deficiency in certain vitamins and minerals.
Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) is an enzyme that is found in many organs throughout the body, with the highest concentrations found in the liver.
GGT is elevated in the blood in most diseases that cause damage to the liver or bile ducts. This test measures the level of GGT in a blood sample
The liver contains the highest levels of GGT, while the blood and some other organs contain minimal quantities. High levels of GGT in the blood could indicate that the enzyme is leaking out of the liver cells and into the blood, suggesting damage to the liver or bile ducts.
A low or normal GGT test result indicates that it is unlikely that you have liver disease or have consumed any alcohol.
The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes of proteins found in the fluid portion of your blood. These are albumin and globulin. Proteins are important parts of all cells and tissues. Albumin helps prevent fluid from leaking out of blood vessels.
High total protein: Too much protein in your blood can be a sign of chronic infection or inflammation (like HIV/AIDS or viral hepatitis). It can also be an early sign of a bone marrow disorder. Low A/G ratio: This might be the sign an autoimmune disorder, where your body’s immune system attacks healthy cells.
Lipids are fatty substances that play an important role in a number of body functions. Apart from being structural components of the cells, Lipids also act as a source and mode of storage of energy for the body.
The Lipid Profile Test helps to detect the levels of Different Types of Lipids in the Blood and is used as part of an overall Heart risk assessment to help determine your risk of heart diseases. It basically serves to assess, monitor and judge the efficacy of treatment in case of cardiovascular diseases.
The Lipid Profile Test typically measures the levels of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. Other results that may be reported include VLDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, and total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio.
Cholesterol is an essential substance for the body; however, if the levels in the blood get too high, it becomes dangerous and might lead to serious health diseases such as Hypertension, Peripheral Vascular Diseases, Chest Diseases, Heart Attacks and Strokes. High Cholesterol is thus dangerous for our health, and we must take steps to avoid this health condition.
Cholesterol is a fat-like substance which is produced by our liver. It is a fat which is required in a certain amount of blood so that our body can function properly. The blood in our body flows freely through the arteries and veins when the Cholesterol levels are in a normal range. However, when the cholesterol levels start to increase, it gets deposited on the walls of arteries forming clots (plaques).
Lipoproteins are the particles which carry Cholesterol through the blood. There are two types of Cholesterol:
1. LDL (Low-Density Lipoprotein) which is also known as the “bad cholesterol.” It is the kind of cholesterol which can raise your risk of heart attacks and stroke.
2. HDL (High-Density Lipoprotein) is called the “good cholesterol”. This type of cholesterol helps in lowering the risk of heart diseases, heart attacks and stroke.
Triglycerides are the commonest type of fat in the body. Triglycerides are obtained from dietary sources and form the stored fat in adipose tissues. Increase in triglyceride concentration can also give rise to cardiovascular diseases.
Higher than optimum levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, and fasting triglycerides indicate an increased risk of plaque formation in the blood vessels (atherosclerosis) and cardiovascular diseases, heart attack, or stroke.
HDL cholesterol reduces the risk factors of the development of cardiovascular diseases. In absence of other factors, higher the HDL levels in the blood, lower is the chance of developing cardiovascular diseases.
Sodium is an important electrolyte which helps to maintain the balance of water in and around your cells and help stabilize blood pressure levels. It is also important for proper muscle and nerve function.
Sodium Levels should be between 135 and 145 milliequivalents per litre.
-Sodium Levels below 135 mEq/L. indicate Hyponatremia which means that either there is too much water or not enough sodium in your blood.
Symptoms of low Sodium in the blood
It varies from person to person. If your sodium levels fall gradually, you may not experience any symptoms. Fast Dropping of Sodium Levels can cause loss of consciousness, seizures, and coma and can require immediate Medical Intervention.
Common symptoms of low blood sodium include:
•fatigue or low energy
•muscle cramps or spasms
Sodium Levels above 145 mEq/L. indicate Hypernatremia which is rare. This happens when a person doesn’t get enough water, either because of limited access to water or an impaired thirst mechanism. It’s caused less commonly by diabetes insipidus.
Potassium helps carry electrical signals to cells in your body and is extremely critical to the proper functioning of nerve and muscles cells, particularly heart muscle cells.
Normal blood potassium level is 3.5 to 5.5 millimoles per litre (mmol/L).
Low potassium indicates -hypokalemia which means-A lower than normal potassium level in your bloodstream. Levels of less than 2.5 mmol/L can be life-threatening and can require immediate medical attention
Causes of Low Potassium
The most common cause is excessive potassium loss in urine due to prescription medications that increase urination. Also known as water pills or diuretics, these types of medications are often prescribed for people who have high blood pressure or heart disease.
Occasionally, low potassium is caused by not getting enough potassium in your diet.
Causes of potassium loss include:
•Alcohol use (excessive)
•Some antibiotic use
•Diuretics (water retention relievers)
•Excessive laxative use
•Chronic kidney disease
•Folic acid deficiency
This test may be required If you have symptoms such as weakness, constant tiredness, or dehydration.
The normal range for chloride in your blood is between 98 and 109 milliequivalents per litre (MEq/L)
-Low levels of Chloride is known as ‘hypochloremia’
Symptoms of Low Chloride Levels include:
•Diarrhoea or vomiting, caused by fluid loss.
•Weakness or fatigue.
-Increased Chloride levels is referred to as “hyperchloremia’
Elevated levels are seen in diarrhoea, some kidney disease and sometimes in overactive parathyroid glands. Diabetes can sometimes cause chloride levels to increase.
Calcium is one of the most important minerals in the body as the body requires calcium to maintain healthy bones and teeth. It’s also essential for keeping your nerves, heart, and muscles functioning properly.The total calcium blood test is used to measure the total amount of calcium in your blood.
Having a higher-than-normal blood calcium level is called hypercalcemia.
Symptoms of High Calcium levels can include:
•Tiredness or weakness
•Nausea or vomiting
•Having to urinate more frequently
Low Values indicate-hypocalcemia which typically occurs when either too much calcium is lost through your urine or when not enough calcium is moved from your bones into your blood.
Symptoms of Low Calcium levels :
•a tingling sensation in your fingers
•cramps in your abdomen or muscles
Diabetes Monitoring Profile
An HbA1c test shows what the average amount of glucose attached to haemoglobin has been over the past three months. It’s a three-month average because that’s typically how long a red blood cell lives.
An HbA1c test is done to check for diabetes or prediabetes in adults. Prediabetes means your blood sugar levels show you are at risk for getting diabetes.
If you already have diabetes, an HbA1c test can help monitor your condition and glucose levels.
Symptoms of Diabetes:
What do the results mean?
HbA1c results are given in percentages. Typical results are below.
•Normal: HbA1c below 5.7%
•Prediabetes: HbA1c between 5.7% and 6.4%
•Diabetes: HbA1c of 6.5% or higher
Estimated average glucose (eAG) is an estimated average of your blood sugar (glucose) levels over a period of 2 to 3 months. It is based on your A1C blood test results.
The normal value for eAG is between 70 mg/dl and 126 mg/dl (A1C: 4% to 6%). A person with diabetes should aim for an eAG less than 154 mg/dl (A1C < 7%) to lower the risk for diabetes complications.
The results of an eAG test may not match your average of day-to-day blood sugar tests you have been taking at home on your glucose meter. This is because you are likely to check your sugar levels before meals or when your blood sugar levels are low. But it does not show your blood sugar at other times of the day. So, the average of your results on your meter may be different than your eAG.
Iron Studies (For ANEMIA SCREENING)
Iron Studies are a set of tests used to measure and estimate the amount of iron carried in the blood and stored in the body tissues. Iron is an essential component of haemoglobin,
iron is required to make red blood cells. Iron is also an important part of hemoglobin, a protein in your blood that helps carry oxygen from your lungs to the rest of your body.
Symptoms of low iron include:
Symptoms of high iron include:
•Weakness or a lack of energy
Low levels of Iron can lead to Anemia in which the body does not have enough red blood cells.
•Total iron-binding capacity (TIBC). This test tells how much transferrin (a protein) is free to carry iron through your blood. If your TIBC level is high, it means more transferrin is free because you have low iron.
•Transferrin saturation. This test measures the percentage of transferrin that is attached to iron.
•Unsaturated iron-binding capacity (UIBC). This test measures how much transferrin isn’t attached to iron.
Arthritis(BONE PROFILE WITH RA-FACTOR)
Arthritis is a condition in which there is swelling and tenderness of one or more joints.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune condition that causes inflammation in the joints
This test helps the doctor to tell the difference between rheumatoid arthritis and other types of arthritis, as well as other conditions. High levels of rheumatoid factor can show up in people with severe rheumatoid arthritis
Urinary Electrolytes (Na, K & Cl )
The electrolytes – urine test measures specific chemicals called electrolytes in urine. It most often measures the levels of sodium, potassium and Chloride.
Having too much or too little sodium can mean there’s an issue with your kidneys or perhaps another health matter.
Sodium is the major positive ion (cation) outside of cells and is also regulated by the kidneys and adrenal glands.
Low sodium levels in the urine could indicate:
•Diarrhea and fluid loss
•Too much hormone released by adrenal glands, which is called hyperaldosteronism
•Release of too much anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) that causes retention of sodium and water; this happens in heart failure and in cirrhosis (scarring of the liver).
High sodium levels in the urine could indicate:
•Use of water pills
•Too much salt in your diet
•Low function of the adrenal glands, which are in your kidneys
•Inflammation of your kidneys
•Hypothyroidism, caused by an underactive thyroid gland
Most potassium tests measure the amount of potassium in your blood, but a urine potassium test is used in some situations. These tests can determine whether you have normal levels of potassium. Potassium levels that are too high or too low can cause numerous symptoms and health risks
A chloride test measures the level of chloride in your blood or urine. Chloride is one of the most important electrolytes in the blood. It helps keep the amount of fluid inside and outside of your cells in balance. It also helps maintain proper blood volume, blood pressure, and pH of your body fluids.
Thyroid Function Tests are blood tests that are done to measure the levels of the hormones produced by the thyroid gland. Some thyroid tests even check the level of hormones produced by the pituitary gland in the brain, which acts on the thyroid gland.
Why is a Thyroid Profile Test done?
A Thyroid Profile Test is done to:
• Check whether the thyroid gland is working in a proper manner or not.
• Detect the cause of Hypothyroidism, i.e. an underactive thyroid gland. A thyroid test can help in determining the exact cause of Hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism can be caused due to a damaged thyroid gland or other causes such as a problem with the hypothalamus or the pituitary gland.
• Monitor treatment with thyroid replacement medicine for those who have hypothyroidism.
• Monitor the functioning of the thyroid gland in people who are being treated for Hyperthyroidism.
• Screen for inherited thyroid problems in newborn babies.
1.Primary hyperthyroidism is accompanied by elevated serum T3 & T4 values along with depressed TSH level.
2.Primary hypothyroidism is accompanied by depressed serum T3 and T4 values & elevated serum TSH levels.
3.Normal T4 levels accompanied by high T3 levels and low TSH are seen in patients with T3 thyrotoxicosis.
4.Normal or low T3 & high T4 levels indicate T4 thyrotoxicosis ( problem is conversion of T4 to T3)
5.Normal T3 & T4 along with low TSH indicate mild/subclinical HYPERTHYROIDISM.
6.Normal T3 & low T4 along with high TSH is seen in HYPOTHYROIDISM.
7.Normal T3 & T4 levels with high TSH indicate Mild / Subclinical HYPOTHYROIDISM.
8.Slightly elevated T3 levels may be found in pregnancy and in estrogen therapy while depressed levels may be encountered in severe illness, malnutrition, renal failure and during therapy with drugs like propanolol.
9.Although elevated TSH levels are nearly always indicative of primary hypothyroidism. rarely they can result from TSH secreting pituitary tumours ( secondary hyperthyroidism )
Vitamin B12 deficiency can cause a wide range of problems like
-Nerve damage. In rare cases, optic nerve can get damaged leading to blurred vision.
-Balance issues: Long-term vitamin B12 deficiency can also cause problems with your balance.
Vitamin B12 deficiency might cause you to feel confused or depressed. It’s also linked to poor memory and dementia.
Symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency
The signs and symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency include:
•Pins and needles (especially in your hands and feet)
•A swollen and sore tongue (glossitis)
In rare cases, it can cause heart and fertility problems.
Causes of vitamin B12 deficiency
•Pernicious anaemia — your immune system mistakenly attacks cells in your stomach that produce intrinsic factor (which you need to absorb vitamin B12)
•Diet — plant-based diets, such as vegan, vegetarian, and dairy-free diets are sometimes lacking in vitamin B12
•Medication — some medications, like proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), can inhibit absorption of vitamin B12
You can also be at risk of vitamin B12 deficiency if you:
•are pregnant or breastfeeding
•are over 50 years — because you might stop producing enough hydrochloric acid in your stomach which is needed for absorption of vitamin B12
•suffer from a gastrointestinal disorder — like coeliac disease or Crohn’s disease
You should also keep in mind that folic acid supplements can mask vitamin B12 deficiency. This is because it can improve your symptoms so much that they’re not noticeable.
VITAMIN D3 25-HYDROXY
lower-than-normal levels suggest a vitamin D deficiency. This condition can result from Lack of exposure to sunlight, Lack of adequate vitamin D in the diet, Liver and kidney diseases and Malabsorption.
Vitamin D Deficiency may lead to
-Low blood calcium levels (hypocalcaemia)
-Thin or weak bones (rickets, osteoporosis and osteomalacia)
-High levels of parathyroid hormone (secondary hyperparathyroidism)
Total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (D2 + D3) is the correct measure of Vitamin D status.
Higher-than-normal levels suggest excess vitamin D, a condition called hypervitaminosis D. It is usually caused by vitamin D in the form of doctor-prescribed dietary supplements. 95% of serum vitamin D is Vit D3. D2 is only received from supplements.
A Urine Test can help to detect many diseases before you actually feel the symptoms and as such is very important. Urine Routine & Microscopy Test is Primarily done as part of Routine Health Checkup to Detect abnormalities or infections which could indicate:
•Urinary Tract Infection
•Diagnosis of metabolic disorders such as liver diseases, diabetes, etc.
A urine test can include :
The urine will be looked at for color and clearness. Blood may make urine look red or the colour of tea or cola. An infection may make urine look cloudy. Foamy urine can be a sign of kidney problems.
It basically involves the examination of the urine sample under the microscope to check for the presence of Bacteria, casts, crystals, cells, and or yeast. Etc that cannot be seen with the naked eye.
Involves dipping of a thin plastic stick with strips of chemicals on it into the urine to look for changes in colour of the strip which happens when the level of substances present is more than the normal level in the urine. Some of the things a dipstick examination can check for include Acidity(pH), Protein, Glucose Sugar, White Blood Cells (Pus Cells), Bilirubin etc